Hantavirus is a known strain that doesn’t spread upon human contact and is quite rare, but we still be aware of it as after being contact with this virus it might causes fatal situations during human life .
Not to panic as HV is not a communicable nor airborne transmission cause as it’s only get when people came in contact with rodent saliva , urine or feces where present
HantaVirus is a single-stranded RNA virus, enveloped, negative-sense , Hantaviridae family , order Bunyaviridae .
It normally infect rodents, but do not cause disease in them. Humans may become infected with these viruses from contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces as well.
Few strains of hantaviruses cause mostly dangerous diseases in people , such as Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), or Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), also called as Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) .
How Common Is Hantavirus?
Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome is more common. Hantavirus Pulmonary syndrome is rare respiratory illness but fatal that is associated with inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta (feces and urine) contaminated mostly by HV certain particles.
Structure Of Hanta Virus ( HV)
They are about approximately 120-160 nm in diameter. The lipid bilayer of that viral envelope is approximately 5 nm thick and it is embedded with it’s surface proteins to which sugar resedues are joined .
Those glycoproteins, also called as Gn and Gc , encoded by M segment of viral genome.They associate with each other and obtain both interior tail and exterior domain which extends approximately 6 nm beyond surface envelope.
Inside envelop present present nucleocapsids. those are made up of various copies of nucleocapsid protein i.e( N ) , that interest with 3 segments of viral genome to made helical structures.
Hanta Virus (HV) Naming
Hanta Virus (HV) name given for Hanta River area in South korea where there was an early outbreak observed and was isolated in 1976 by Ho Wang Lee.
Hanta virus Transmission
Hanta virus (HV) transmission occurs by contact with body fluids of rodents , mostly from saliva after bites and usually by inhalation of viral particles faeces in aerosols and urine.
pathogenesis of Hanta virus (HV)
HV infections pathogenesis is unclear as there is certage of animal models to explain it (mice and rat don’t seem to obtained serious diseases).
While primary place of viral replication in body is not well known , in HFRS ( Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome) the main effect in blood vessels and in HPS ( Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome ) mostly symptoms related to lungs and also spleen as well as gallbladder too.
Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)
Mostly caused by Hanta virus in Europe and Asia. It’s clinical features differ from subclinical to fatal depending on virus.
Incubation period 2-4 weeks after incubation period illness start with non- specific symptoms eg. Headache , high fever , chills , abdominal pain , back pain ,vomiting and nausea . Bleeding under skin and renal dysfunction as reduced blood flow due to endothelial damage of blood vessels also occurs and result dangerous situations for human life.
HPS ( Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome )/ HCPS (Hanta Cardiopulmonary Syndrome )
Early symptoms of HPS presents similar like flu ( fever , muscle ach and fatigue) and mostly seen around 2-3 weeks time of exposure. Late stage about 4-10 days of symptoms start that includes breathing difficulty , shortness of breath and coughing.
Hantavirus Sign and Symptoms
A. Early Symptoms of ( HV)
- Fever and muscle aches, usually in the large muscle groups—thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders also.
- Adominal problems, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain as well.
B. Late Symptoms of (HV)
- 4 to 10 days after initial phase of illness, the late symptoms of HPS seen . Like coughing and shortness of breath, with sensation of, as one survivor put it, a “…tight band around the chest and a pillow over the face” as the lungs get fill with fluid.
C. Fatal Symptoms
If HPS develop ( Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) can be fatal. Mortality rate of 38%.
In some instant Rivabirin is used in case of HPS and HFRS, but it’s effectiveness is still in controversy. Spontaneous recovery is possible only with supportive therapy .
Suspect With HV patient should be admitted in hospital and give oxygen and support mechanical ventilation in case of acute pulmonary stage and severe respiratory distress case .
Immunotherapy is done but still it’s role unknown .
- Stay away from places where rodents leave possible droppings.
- Wear rubber gloves and a mask that covers nose and face during exposure to rodents droppings.
- Use of disinfectant to sanitize the areas containing rodents droppings so that infected dust doesn’t spread in the air.
- Seal holes in and around home so rodents cannot get in as they want .
- Trap rodents in and around home to decrease theirs numbers.
- Avoid leaving food out in home and when camping outside too.
- Before entering to spaces known to have rodents in them, air out the area properly.
No proper vaccine for Hantavirus available.
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