Candidiasis: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Home remedies

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Candidiasis is a fungal infection that affects the mouth, throat, gut, vulva, and vagina. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common causes of vulvovaginal itching and discharge. It’s a fungal infection due to any type of Candida I.e a type of yeast. The most common is the Candida albicans that causes candidiasis.

Candidiasis

Inhabitants of Candida

Candida mostly lives on the skin & inside the body places such as the mouth, throat, gut, as well as vagina, without causing any problems.

They can cause infections only if they grow out of control or if they enter deep into the body (eg, the bloodstream or internal organs such as the kidney, heart, or brain).

Factors that can lead to Candida overgrown includes

  • Consuming antibiotics
  • Taking a high sugar diet  & refined carbs as well.
  • Increasing alcohol consumption 
  • Poor immune system
  • Oral contraceptive pills consumers
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Increase the  level of stress


Candidiasis sign and symptoms

  • At normal levels, the fungus is not problematic but when they begin to grow uncontrollable fashion then they can cause an infection called candidiasis.
  • Vulvar pruritus – dominant feature, Vulvar burning, soreness, and irritation, dysuria, or dyspareunia. 
  • Symptoms are often worse during the week prior to menses.
  • Erythema of the vulva and vaginal mucosa and vulvar edema.
  • Vulvar excoriation and fissures are present in approximately one-quarter of patients. 
  • little or no discharge; when present, it is classically white, thick, adherent to the vaginal sidewalls, and clumpy (curd-like or cottage cheese-like) with no or minimal odor.
  • Vaginal candidiasis occurs frequently during pregnancy but is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
  • Infect the joints and cause pain in join as well arthritis.
  • Skin & nail fungal infections as well as a sinus infection.

Diagnosis of Candidiasis

Vaginal pH- normal
Saline microscopy- PMN: EC ratio <1; rods dominate; squames +++; pseudohyphae (present in approximately 40% of patients); budding yeast for nonalbicans Candida
10% potassium hydroxide microscopy- Pseudohyphae (in approximately 70% of patients)

Culture 
DNA hybridization probe (eg, Affirm VPIII) 

Candidiasis Treatment

Application of a topical imidazole (clotrimazole or miconazole) vaginally for seven days.

During pregnancy, oral azole therapy is avoided particularly during the first trimester, because it may increase the risk of miscarriage and its impact on birth defects is unclear.

Home remedies that help in candida infection such as:- 

• Garlic
• Coconut oil
• Curcumin
• Xylitol
• Aloe vera 
• Pomegranate
• Kombucha
• Probiotics

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